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Ezekiel Taylor
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VU Quiz Firewall: A Mandatory Chrome Extension for Proctoring Quizzes in Virtual University of Pakistan



NOTE: If you have the new question on this test, please comment Question and Multiple-Choice list in form below this article. We will update answers for you in the shortest time. Thank you! We truly value your contribution to the website.1. Which of the following firewalls hides or masquerades the private addresses of network hosts?


Explanation: A Distributed DoS (DDoS) attack is similar to a DoS attack but originates from multiple, coordinated sources. For example:An attacker builds a network (botnet) of infected hosts called zombies, which are controlled by handler systems.The zombie computers will constantly scan and infect more hosts, creating more and more zombies.When ready, the hacker will instruct the handler systems to make the botnet of zombies carry out a DDoS attack.65. What is the purpose of a backdoor?To enable software vendors to update softwareFor government accessTo gain unauthorized access to a system without normal authentication proceduresTo allow developers to debug software66. Which of the following firewalls filters ports and system service calls on a single computer operating system?Network address translation firewallTransport layer firewallHost-based firewallNetwork layer firewallApplication layer firewall67. What type of attack disrupts services by overwhelming network devices with bogus traffic?DDoSZero-dayBrute forcePort scansExplanation: DDoS, or distributed denial of service, attacks are used to disrupt service by overwhelming network devices with bogus traffic.




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A firewall should be considered an absolute must. With a firewall on your network, you can block specific traffic (coming or going), blacklist certain IP addresses or domains and generally prevent unwanted traffic/packets from entering your systems. Of course, most operating systems include their own firewalls but some of those are either too complicated or not powerful enough to meet the growing needs of your company. Should you find that to be the case, you might consider deploying a firewall device, built specifically to protect your network.


Although these devices can be costly, the results they deliver are often worth the spend. For enterprise businesses, a firewall becomes even more important (especially with sensitive company/client data housed within your network). The best firewall devices on the market include Cisco ASA, Fortinet FortiGate, Palo Alto Networks Next-Generation PA Series, Cisco Meraki MX and Zscaler Internet Access.


Mobile devices are increasingly being used to access corporate networks, namely through Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) policies. This can be a security issue because mobile devices may not have the same level of security features as computers, such as an antivirus or a firewall. Additionally, mobile devices can be easily lost or stolen, giving attackers direct access to sensitive data; and they are often connected to free public Wi-Fi networks, which security risks are numerous.


Before you get started, you need to download the JMeter Plugins Manager. Once you've downloaded the JAR file put it into JMeter's lib/ext directory. Then start JMeter and go to "Options" menu to access the Plugins Manager.


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PAUL ROBERTSHey, welcome back to ConversingLabs. This is ReversingLabs podcast, where we talk to the top minds in threat intelligence, threat hunting, software assurance, and cybersecurity, of course. And so happy with us, so happy today to have our guest, Patrick Wardle with us. Patrick, welcome.PATRICK WARDLEThanks, Paul. Good to be chatting with you again. Yeah, really great to be on the podcast. Looking forward to talking to you today.PAUL ROBERTSSo we're talking to you. You're actually in Spain right now, and so there's a little bit of a delay, but for the folks who aren't familiar with you and your work, Patrick, just tell us a little bit about yourself and about Objective-See.PATRICK WARDLEYeah, my name is Patrick Wardle. I am a passionate Mac security researcher, and I've really kind of put this passion, this love, into a nonprofit called the Objective-See Foundation. And we do currently three main things. First and foremost, I create free, open source Mac security tools. The kind of Objective-See suite which a lot of you are probably familiar with. Firewall products, tools to monitor microphones to check persistent malware, that kind of stuff. Also the author of the recently published The Art of Mac Malware. It's a book describing how to analyze Mac malware. It's fully free, available online, also published by No Starch Press. And then finally, I also organized the Objective by the See Mac Security Conference. The reason I'm actually in Spain is that's coming up in October and a few months here in Europe in Spain, and we bring top speakers, researchers from all over the world in a community focused conference to talk about the latest Mac security and iOS security exploits, tools, malware, all the fun things.PAUL ROBERTSYeah, you are kind of the Obi-Wan Kenobi of Mac... Malware and Mac security.PATRICK WARDLEWait, isn't he dead?PAUL ROBERTSI was going to say I'm not making any predictions about how this is going to turn out, but that is really kind of what you're known for, not just Mac security, but over the years, you've discovered a lot of really interesting kind of vulnerabilities or malicious code lurking in otherwise kind of benign seeming applications. I think the last time we spoke was back in 2020. You had discovered a couple of really serious bugs in the Zoom application right at the onset of the pandemic, when pretty much everyone, their mother was using Zoom for everything. So this is kind of this is your background. And how did you get interested just in working on the Mac platform? Obviously, as a threat person, most of what's out there is Windows based. So how did you get interested in Mac?PATRICK WARDLEYeah, that's a great question, Paul, and it kind of fell into it almost by accident. So, in our prior life, my younger days, I was working at the National Security Agency, the NSA, where I was a malicious code analyst, and also then working on creating, let's just say, offensive cyber capabilities. When I left, I went to help start a company, and I wanted to be able to use the same foundational skills, reverse engineering, tool writing, but not stepping on any pose, right? You don't want to piss off the NSA. And so I said, hey, there's this kind of like new, at least to me, platform OSX at the time, right? Kind of not even macOS. And I can see his popularity was increasing. And I said, cool, if I transition to this, because at the NSA, I was doing only Windows research and work that I won't be stepping on anyone's toes, but I can use the same skills, analyzing malicious code, writing tools, et cetera, et cetera. So in retrospect, it was a very auspicious decision, and I have the NSA indirectly to thank for that. But that's really how I got involved and interested in the macOS platform. Very quickly, I saw this need this there was a gap for special security tools. The story I always like to tell is I had a friend in Hawaii. He was a surfboard shaper, and his Mac computer got hacked. Adware there was pop ups, really kind of standard stuff. And he said, hey, Patrick, you do computers. Fix my stuff, right? This is the struggle all of us in this field face fixing friends and relatives, computers anytime something goes wrong. So I said, yeah, sure. And I was like, okay, well, Windows, I would download system kernels, auto runs, see what was persistently installed, and then from that very easily find malware. And so I said, okay, where's the auto runs for macOS? And this was 2012-ish, and there wasn't one. And I said, interesting. So I kind of whip together this embarrassingly bad Python script that enumerated login items, launch daemons, launch agents brought it back, ran it on his computer, and it uncovered the adware, which wasn't that sophisticated, but that, to me, was the kind of light bulb moment that, hey, there's a need for these tools. Because at that time, too, me as a Mac user, I wanted to say, hey, what's persistently installed on my computer? And there wasn't an easy way, a comprehensive way to do that. So that was kind of nice. And I also got a custom surfboard out of the deal. So I was like, man, win win. So that's kind of the long-ish answer to how I got into Mac and how the focus on Mac security tools really came to fruition.PAUL ROBERTSYes, for listeners. Patrick is a resident of the beautiful state of Hawaii, and so having a custom surfboard that comes in handy.PATRICK WARDLEKey.PAUL ROBERTSIf you're in Massachusetts, it doesn't have quite the same value.PATRICK WARDLEYou can surfboard down snowboarding, right?PAUL ROBERTSThere's some surfing here. There's some practice to say, and really interestingly, you set this up. Again, Objective-See Foundation is a nonprofit, so you really set this up. Instead of cynically going out there and just deciding to make a lot of money off this, you set it up as a nonprofit, just talk about that decision.PATRICK WARDLEYeah. So from the beginning, everything I wanted to be free, and not everything was open source at the beginning, which is what we'll talk about today. And the reason why is exactly because of the topic we're going to dive into. But my tools are focused on end users. And really I thought that end users, in my opinion, shouldn't pay for security tools. There's been a few interesting cases over the years that have really kind of reiterated that to me, what I always talk about is deals with this malware called Fruit Fly. Fruit Fly was around for about ten years before it was discovered. It was written by allegedly by this individual who wrote some custom malware to target Macs. And allegedly what he would do is I say allegedly because he's awaiting trial and got to be a little careful here. He would deploy these two hack into Mac systems, deploy it, and then he would turn on the Webcam to spy on individuals. And a lot of his victims were children, which that's really just gross. Right. And so to me. I always thought that if these individuals had been using even basic security software. Something that perhaps were to about the Webcam coming on. Because what this individual allegedly would do is wait till the people were not in front of the computers. Then his malware would turn on the Webcam. The indicator light would come on. But they'd be in the bedroom or something. And so they wouldn't see that. And he would spy on these people for over a decade. The FBI got involved. They went so far to set up kind of like help lines with psychologists to when they alerted the victims, the parents say, hey, your child has been spied on for the last five years. I mean, that's like emotionally just even incomprehensible. So, yeah, and I was like, from a security point of view, if they were running basic security tools, we could have caught this a lot earlier and maybe prevented some really damaging situations. And again, the malware wasn't super sophisticated, so even simple security tools. And so part of the reason was a lot of people thought Macs couldn't get malware. And this is Apple marketing. So one of the things I really always like to focus on is that Macs are computers, they're going to have malware, they're going to have vulnerabilities, but then also, hey, can we make free open source security tools so that end users can add that extra layer of protection to hopefully prevent the next reply or everything in between? And so that was always the mission, it aligned really well with the idea of a nonprofit really just focus on doing community activities. I see a huge the adversaries are getting very sophisticated as Macs become very prevalent in the enterprise. They're targeting Macs more and more. And there's really this gap where there's not as many Mac security researchers, Mac malware analysts. So if I can share my expertise or help organize conferences to bring speakers, to bring awareness, it's really a win win for everyone in the industry, us as defenders. So the nonprofit seemed to be a natural fit. And I have a lot of really amazing companies that sponsor that, too. So I give a lot of credit and thanks to them as well, because they recognize what we're doing. And that's kind of why this all comes to fruition. So it's really a joint effort, community focus, and something I'm really proud about.PAUL ROBERTSSo I reach out to you, Patrick, because you're doing a talk with a colleague and researcher at Johns Hopkins University, Tom Maguire, at the Black Hat Conference, which is next week. And it's a little bit off your usual. I mean, again, you're best known for delving into Mac security issues and Mac malware. This is a little bit different. And the talk is called Deja Vu, and you're really talking about a pattern or that you've seen of really code theft and reuse that might be getting missed by organizations that are doing software development. So can you talk first, I guess, how you got turned on to this subject?PATRICK WARDLEGreat question, Paul. And again, thank you for giving me the opportunity to talk about this, because I think this is a systemic issue that's affecting the community in a negative way. And I think just bringing awareness to the issue will allow us to really move forward positively and kind of squash this. But again, having awareness is really, I think, what was missing in the first place. My Black Hat talk is basically on the issue of corporations stealing algorithms, essentially, from Objective-See's tools and reimplementing them in their commercial products, which is obviously not okay. How I stumbled across this kind of humorous in retrospect.PAUL ROBERTSI'm not just a researcher. I'm a victim, too.PATRICK WARDLEActually. Yeah, so this client said, hey, Patrick, we have some files that are antivirus flag to take a look where something more we should be worried about? And I was looking at one of them, and it was one of these pop products, right, this potentially unwanted software. And so I was like, eh, you know, it's good to get this out of your network, but it's not something that's super worrisome. But as I was looking through this potentially unloaded program, it was like one of these fake security products, and it basically said, hey, we can alert you when your mic or your webcam is being utilized. And I was like, oh, that's interesting. I was like, yeah, my tool does that, too. And I was like, there's many ways to do this, so I'm interested in how they're doing that. And I started looking for the code. I was like, okay, this is similar to my code. And then I was like, wow, this is exactly like my code. And we'll talk a little bit more later of what that is, because there's some gray area where just because someone is using the same approach, right, they could be equally inspired or stumbled across it. But when they're using the same hard coded constants, when their code has the same bugs from your code, it really turns into this verbatim, almost plagiarism, that really, to me, crosses the line. And so that was kind of interesting, but I kind of brushed it off. I was like, well, it's this shady company. Like, no surprises. I'll ping them and see if we can resolve this. Fast forward a few years recently, my tool, Oversight, which monitors the mic webcam to detect things like the Fruit Fly malware we talked about broke. And as you mentioned, first and foremost, I'm a security researcher. I do write tools, bu


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